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Pigmenti

Pigmenti

Utilizzati per conferire colore a vari prodotti commercializzati nell’UE, i pigmenti sono sostanze chimiche insolubili, che si dividono in organici o inorganici. Si compongono di diverse sostanze chimiche, alcune delle quali sono nanomateriali. La dimensione delle particelle dei pigmenti può svolgere un ruolo importante nelle proprietà di tali sostanze.

I nanomateriali, come le particelle colloidali d’oro per colorare il vetro, sono utilizzati da secoli e si possono trovare nelle vetrate artistiche di numerosi edifici storici di tutta Europa. I nanopigmenti possono essere presenti in diversi prodotti, vernici, rivestimenti, inchiostri da stampa e prodotti cosmetici.

La caratterizzazione di quali pigmenti siano nanomateriali rappresenta un’importante sfida sia scientifica sia normativa, come nel caso dei nanomateriali in generale. L’immissione di pigmenti sul mercato dell’UE, inclusi i nanopigmenti, è disciplinata da diversi regolamenti, tra cui il regolamento REACH e, ove pertinente, i regolamenti dell’UE sui prodotti cosmetici e sui prodotti alimentari, fra gli altri.

 

Elenco dei nanopigmenti presenti sul mercato dell’UE

Un elenco di pigmenti nano-dimensionali oggi notoriamente presenti sul mercato dell’UE è stato stilato nell’ambito di uno studio commissionato dall’EUON inteso a esaminare l’uso sicuro dei pigmenti nano-dimensionali nei prodotti di consumo nonché la loro sicurezza quando sono utilizzati da professionisti e lavoratori.

Le 81 sostanze che figurano nell’elenco sono estratte dalla banca dati delle sostanze chimiche gestita dall’Agenzia europea per le sostanze chimiche (ECHA), dalle pubblicazioni degli inventari nazionali di Belgio e Francia nonché dall’attuale catalogo dell’UE dei nanomateriali utilizzati nei prodotti cosmetici. Sono stati usati anche dati estrapolati dal registro dei prodotti danese. Clicca sui nomi delle sostanze contenute nell’elenco per ottenere maggiori informazioni dalla banca dati dell’ECHA relativa alle sostanze chimiche.

 

No Name REACH Data
REACH tonnage (tpa) Professional use Consumer use
1 Titanium dioxide 1,000,000 + Y Y
2 Rutile (TiO2) 10,000 - 100,000 Y  
3 Iron hydroxide oxide yellow 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
4 Diiron trioxide / Iron (III) oxide 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
5 Zinc oxide 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
6 Manganese ferrite black spinel 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
7 Silicon Dioxide 1,000,000 + Y Y
8 Iron manganese trioxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
9 Aluminium Oxide 10,000,000+ Y Y
10 (2E)-10,12-dioxa-2,3,6,8,14,16-hexaaza-11-nickelatricyclo[11.4.0.04,9]heptadeca-1(13),2,4(9)-triene-5,7,15,17-tetrone; 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine 100 - 1,000 Y Y
11 Calcium carbonate 1,000,000 - 10,000,000 Y Y
12 Barium sulphate 10,000 - 100,000 Y Y
13 Carbon black 1,000,000 + Y Y
14 Cobalt aluminate blue spinel 1,000 - 10,000 Y  
15 Bismuth vanadium tetraoxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
16 29H,31H-phthalocyaninato(2-)-N29,N30,N31,N32 copper 10,000 - 100,000 Y Y
17 5,12-dihydro-2,9-dimethylquino-[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
18 5,12-dihydroquino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
19 4-[(4-aminophenyl)[4-(methylimino)cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]methyl]aniline Not Registered    
20 Polychloro copper phthalocyanine 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
21 2-[(4-methyl-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-oxo-N-phenylbutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
22 4-[[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]azo]-N-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
23 1-[(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-2-naphthol 100 - 1,000 Y Y
24 1-[(2,4-dinitrophenyl)azo]-2-naphthol 100 - 1,000 Y Y
25 4,4'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
26 4,4'-diamino[1,1'-bianthracene]-9,9',10,10'-tetraone 100 - 1,000 Y Y
27 bisbenzimidazo[2,1-b:2',1'-i]benzo[lmn][3,8]phenanthroline-8,17-dione 10 – 100 Y  
28 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
29 manganese, 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulfophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid complex 100- 1,000 Y Y
30 N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[[2-methoxy-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
31 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(2-methylphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
32 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
33 3,3'-[(2-chloro-5-methyl-p-phenylene)bis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethylene)azo]]bis[4-chloro-N-(3-chloro-o-tolyl)benzamide] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
34 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-N-phenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
35 2,20-dichloro-13,31-diethyl-4,22-dioxa-13,18,31,36-tetraazanonacyclo
[19.15.0.0³,¹⁹.0⁵,¹⁷.0⁶,¹⁴.0⁷,¹².0²³,³⁵.0²⁴,³².0²⁵,³⁰]
hexatriaconta-1(36),2,5,7(12),8,10,14,16,18,20,23(35),24(32),25,27,29,33-hexadecaene
1,000 - 10,000
 
Y Y
36 2-[(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
37 3-hydroxy-4-[(2-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(o-tolyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No uses reported
38 N-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[[5-[(diethylamino)sulphonyl]-2-methoxyphenyl]azo]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No Use reported
39 3-hydroxy-N-(o-tolyl)-4-[(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
40 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No Use reported
41 Calcium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
42 Barium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
43 2-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
44 Strontium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate (1:1) 100 - 1,000 Y Y
45 4,4'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-(p-tolyl)-3H-pyrazol-3-one] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
46 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-N-[2-(4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-1H-inden-2-yl)-8-quinolyl]phthalimide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
47 Dimethyl 2-[[1-[[(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-oxopropyl]azo]terephthalate 10 - 100 No Use reported No Use reported
48 5,5'-(1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-diylidene)dibarbituric acid 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
49 4-[[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]azo]-3-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 - 100 Y Y
50 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-2-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-oxobutyramide 10 - 100 No Use reported No Use reported
51 Methyl 4-[[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2-[[2-hydroxy-3-[[(2-methoxyphenyl)amino]carbonyl]-1-naphthyl]azo]benzoate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
52 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxo-2-[[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]azo]butyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
53 Tetramethyl 2,2'-[1,4-phenylenebis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethane-1,2-diyl)azo]]bisterephthalate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
54 5-[(2,3-dihydro-6-methyl-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)azo]barbituric acid 100 - 1,000 Y Y
55 N-[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]-4-[[1-[[(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-oxopropyl]azo]benzamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
56 2,2'-[ethylenebis(oxyphenyl-2,1-eneazo)]bis[N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
57 3,3'-[(2-chloro-5-methyl-p-phenylene)bis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethylene)azo]]bis[4-chloro-N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]benzamide] 10 - 100 Y Y
58 3,6-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1H,2H,4H,5H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione 1,000 - 10,000. Y Y
59

3,6-bis(4-phenylphenyl)-1H,2H,4H,5H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione

10-100 Y Y
60  

N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[(E)-2-[2-methoxy-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl]diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide; N-(5-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[(E)-2-[2-methoxy-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl]diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide

100 - 1,000 No Use reported No Use reported
61 Ethanaminium, N-[4-[[4-(diethylamino)phenyl][4-(ethylamino)-1-naphthalenyl]methylene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene]-Nethyl-, molybdatetungstatephosphate Not Registered    
62 2,9-dichloro-5,12-dihydroquino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione Not Registered    
63 barium bis[2-chloro-5-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]toluene-4-sulphonate] Not Registered    
64 Xanthylium, 9-[2-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-3,6-bis(ethylamino)-2,7-dimethyl-, molybdatesilicate Not Registered    
65 Benzenamine, N,N-dimethyl-, oxidized, molybdatetungstatephosphates Not Registered    
66 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 0 - 10 No Use reported No Use reported
67 2-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
68 benzenamine, 4-[(4-aminophenyl)(4-imino-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)methyl]-, N-Me derivatives,molybdatephosphates Not Registered    
69 Butanamide, 2,2'-((3,3'-dichloro(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-
diyl)bis(2,1-diazenediyl))bis(N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1Hbenzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxo-
Not Registered    
70 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-hydroxy-4-[[2-methoxy-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
71 Bis[[4-[[4-(diethylamino)phenyl][4-(ethylamino)-1-naphthyl]methylene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]diethylammonium] dicopper(1+) hexa(cyano-C)ferrate(4-) 10 - 100    
72 N,N'-(2-chloro-1,4-phenylene)bis[4-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
73 Copper(II)-hydroxycarbonate 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
74 Chromium(III) oxide 10,000 -100,000 Y Y
75 Disodium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate 10-100 Y Y
76 Calcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate      
77 Prussian blue 100-1,000 Y Y
78 Triiron tetraoxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
79 Silver (Ag) 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y  
80 Gold 100 - 1,000 Y Y
81 Copper 1,000,000 - 10,000,000 Y Y

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