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Pigmenter

Pigmenter

Pigmenter er uopløselige kemikalier, der enten er organiske eller uorganiske, og som anvendes til at give farve til forskellige produkter på EU-markedet. De omfatter adskillige kemikalier, hvoraf flere er nanomaterialer. Størrelsen af pigmentpartiklerne kan være af væsentlig betydning for disse kemikaliers egenskaber.

Nanomaterialer som f.eks. kolloide guldpartikler til farvning af glas er blevet anvendt i flere hundrede år og findes i farvede glasruder i mange historiske bygninger i hele Europa. Nanomaterialepigmenter findes i en række forskellige produkter, malinger, overfladebehandlingsmidler, tryksværte og kosmetik.

Bestemmelsen af, hvilke pigmenter kan karakteriseres som nanomaterialer, udgør en vigtig videnskabelig og reguleringsmæssig udfordring, som tilfældet er med nanomaterialer generelt. Produktplaceringen af pigmenter, herunder nanomaterialepigmenter, på EU-markedet er omfattet af forskellige bestemmelser, herunder REACH-forordningen og, hvor det er relevant, EU-regler om bl.a. kosmetiske produkter og fødevarer.

 

Liste over nanopigmenter på EU-markedet

Som led i en undersøgelse bestilt af EUON om sikker anvendelse af nanopigmenter i forbrugerprodukter såvel som sikkerheden ved disse pigmenter, når de bruges af fagfolk og arbejdstagere, blev der opstillet en liste over nanopigmenter, som i øjeblikket vides at være på EU-markedet.

Listen rummer 81 stoffer fra Det Europæiske Kemikalieagenturs (ECHA's) kemikaliedatabase såvel som offentliggørelser fra de belgiske og franske nationale opgørelser og det nuværende EU-katalog over nanomaterialer, der anvendes i kosmetiske produkter. Der blev også anvendt data fra det danske produktregister. Klik på stofnavnene på listen for at få mere information fra ECHA's kemikaliedatabase.

 

No Name REACH Data
REACH tonnage (tpa) Professional use Consumer use
1 Titanium dioxide 1,000,000 + Y Y
2 Rutile (TiO2) 10,000 - 100,000 Y  
3 Iron hydroxide oxide yellow 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
4 Diiron trioxide / Iron (III) oxide 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
5 Zinc oxide 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
6 Manganese ferrite black spinel 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
7 Silicon Dioxide 1,000,000 + Y Y
8 Iron manganese trioxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
9 Aluminium Oxide 10,000,000+ Y Y
10 (2E)-10,12-dioxa-2,3,6,8,14,16-hexaaza-11-nickelatricyclo[11.4.0.04,9]heptadeca-1(13),2,4(9)-triene-5,7,15,17-tetrone; 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine 100 - 1,000 Y Y
11 Calcium carbonate 1,000,000 - 10,000,000 Y Y
12 Barium sulphate 10,000 - 100,000 Y Y
13 Carbon black 1,000,000 + Y Y
14 Cobalt aluminate blue spinel 1,000 - 10,000 Y  
15 Bismuth vanadium tetraoxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
16 29H,31H-phthalocyaninato(2-)-N29,N30,N31,N32 copper 10,000 - 100,000 Y Y
17 5,12-dihydro-2,9-dimethylquino-[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
18 5,12-dihydroquino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
19 4-[(4-aminophenyl)[4-(methylimino)cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]methyl]aniline Not Registered    
20 Polychloro copper phthalocyanine 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
21 2-[(4-methyl-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-oxo-N-phenylbutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
22 4-[[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]azo]-N-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
23 1-[(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-2-naphthol 100 - 1,000 Y Y
24 1-[(2,4-dinitrophenyl)azo]-2-naphthol 100 - 1,000 Y Y
25 4,4'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
26 4,4'-diamino[1,1'-bianthracene]-9,9',10,10'-tetraone 100 - 1,000 Y Y
27 bisbenzimidazo[2,1-b:2',1'-i]benzo[lmn][3,8]phenanthroline-8,17-dione 10 – 100 Y  
28 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
29 manganese, 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulfophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid complex 100- 1,000 Y Y
30 N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[[2-methoxy-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
31 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(2-methylphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
32 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
33 3,3'-[(2-chloro-5-methyl-p-phenylene)bis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethylene)azo]]bis[4-chloro-N-(3-chloro-o-tolyl)benzamide] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
34 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-N-phenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
35 2,20-dichloro-13,31-diethyl-4,22-dioxa-13,18,31,36-tetraazanonacyclo
[19.15.0.0³,¹⁹.0⁵,¹⁷.0⁶,¹⁴.0⁷,¹².0²³,³⁵.0²⁴,³².0²⁵,³⁰]
hexatriaconta-1(36),2,5,7(12),8,10,14,16,18,20,23(35),24(32),25,27,29,33-hexadecaene
1,000 - 10,000
 
Y Y
36 2-[(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
37 3-hydroxy-4-[(2-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(o-tolyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No uses reported
38 N-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[[5-[(diethylamino)sulphonyl]-2-methoxyphenyl]azo]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No Use reported
39 3-hydroxy-N-(o-tolyl)-4-[(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
40 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No Use reported
41 Calcium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
42 Barium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
43 2-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
44 Strontium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate (1:1) 100 - 1,000 Y Y
45 4,4'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-(p-tolyl)-3H-pyrazol-3-one] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
46 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-N-[2-(4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-1H-inden-2-yl)-8-quinolyl]phthalimide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
47 Dimethyl 2-[[1-[[(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-oxopropyl]azo]terephthalate 10 - 100 No Use reported No Use reported
48 5,5'-(1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-diylidene)dibarbituric acid 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
49 4-[[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]azo]-3-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 - 100 Y Y
50 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-2-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-oxobutyramide 10 - 100 No Use reported No Use reported
51 Methyl 4-[[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2-[[2-hydroxy-3-[[(2-methoxyphenyl)amino]carbonyl]-1-naphthyl]azo]benzoate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
52 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxo-2-[[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]azo]butyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
53 Tetramethyl 2,2'-[1,4-phenylenebis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethane-1,2-diyl)azo]]bisterephthalate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
54 5-[(2,3-dihydro-6-methyl-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)azo]barbituric acid 100 - 1,000 Y Y
55 N-[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]-4-[[1-[[(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-oxopropyl]azo]benzamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
56 2,2'-[ethylenebis(oxyphenyl-2,1-eneazo)]bis[N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
57 3,3'-[(2-chloro-5-methyl-p-phenylene)bis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethylene)azo]]bis[4-chloro-N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]benzamide] 10 - 100 Y Y
58 3,6-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1H,2H,4H,5H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione 1,000 - 10,000. Y Y
59

3,6-bis(4-phenylphenyl)-1H,2H,4H,5H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione

10-100 Y Y
60  

N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[(E)-2-[2-methoxy-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl]diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide; N-(5-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[(E)-2-[2-methoxy-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl]diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide

100 - 1,000 No Use reported No Use reported
61 Ethanaminium, N-[4-[[4-(diethylamino)phenyl][4-(ethylamino)-1-naphthalenyl]methylene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene]-Nethyl-, molybdatetungstatephosphate Not Registered    
62 2,9-dichloro-5,12-dihydroquino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione Not Registered    
63 barium bis[2-chloro-5-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]toluene-4-sulphonate] Not Registered    
64 Xanthylium, 9-[2-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-3,6-bis(ethylamino)-2,7-dimethyl-, molybdatesilicate Not Registered    
65 Benzenamine, N,N-dimethyl-, oxidized, molybdatetungstatephosphates Not Registered    
66 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 0 - 10 No Use reported No Use reported
67 2-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
68 benzenamine, 4-[(4-aminophenyl)(4-imino-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)methyl]-, N-Me derivatives,molybdatephosphates Not Registered    
69 Butanamide, 2,2'-((3,3'-dichloro(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-
diyl)bis(2,1-diazenediyl))bis(N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1Hbenzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxo-
Not Registered    
70 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-hydroxy-4-[[2-methoxy-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
71 Bis[[4-[[4-(diethylamino)phenyl][4-(ethylamino)-1-naphthyl]methylene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]diethylammonium] dicopper(1+) hexa(cyano-C)ferrate(4-) 10 - 100    
72 N,N'-(2-chloro-1,4-phenylene)bis[4-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
73 Copper(II)-hydroxycarbonate 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
74 Chromium(III) oxide 10,000 -100,000 Y Y
75 Disodium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate 10-100 Y Y
76 Calcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate      
77 Prussian blue 100-1,000 Y Y
78 Triiron tetraoxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
79 Silver (Ag) 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y  
80 Gold 100 - 1,000 Y Y
81 Copper 1,000,000 - 10,000,000 Y Y

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