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Pigmenti

Pigmenti

Pigmenti ir organiskas vai neorganiskas nešķīstošas ķīmiskās vielas, ko izmanto, lai piešķirtu krāsu dažādiem produktiem ES tirgū. Tie sastāv no vairākām ķīmiskajām vielām, no kurām daudzas ir nanomateriāli. Pigmenta daļiņu izmēram var būt liela nozīme šo ķīmisko vielu īpašību veidošanā.

Tādi nanomateriāli kā koloidālā zelta daļiņas stikla iekrāsošanai ir izmantoti jau simtiem gadu, un tos var atrast daudzu vēsturisku ēku iekrāsota stikla logos Eiropā. Nanomateriālu pigmentus var atrast vairākos atšķirīgos produktos, krāsās, pārklājumos, tipogrāfijas krāsās un kosmētikā.

Tāpat kā ar nanomateriāliem kopumā, ir arī zinātniski un regulatīvi grūti raksturot, kuri pigmenti ir klasificējami kā nanomateriāli. Pigmentu, tostarp nanomateriālu pigmentu, laišanu ES tirgū regulē dažādas regulas, tostarp REACH regula un attiecīgos gadījumos cita starpā ES regulas par kosmētikas līdzekļiem un pārtikas produktiem.

 

ES tirgū laisto nanopigmentu saraksts

Kā daļa no Eiropas Savienības nanomateriālu novērošanas centra (EUON) veiktā pētījuma, lai aplūkotu nanoizmēra pigmentu drošu lietošanu patēriņa produktos, kā arī to drošumu, kad tos izmanto profesionāļi un darbinieki, tika izveidots pašlaik ES tirgū esošo nanoizmēra pigmentu saraksts.

Sarakstā ir 81 viela no Eiropas Ķimikāliju aģentūras (ECHA) ķīmisko vielu datubāzes, kā arī Beļģijas un Francijas valsts sarakstu publikācijām un pašreizējā ES kataloga ar kosmētikas līdzekļos izmantotajiem nanomateriāliem. Tika izmantoti arī dati no Dānijas produktu reģistra. Klikšķiniet uz vielu nosaukumiem sarakstā, lai iegūtu plašāku informāciju no ECHA ķīmisko vielu datubāzes.

 

No Name REACH Data
REACH tonnage (tpa) Professional use Consumer use
1 Titanium dioxide 1,000,000 + Y Y
2 Rutile (TiO2) 10,000 - 100,000 Y  
3 Iron hydroxide oxide yellow 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
4 Diiron trioxide / Iron (III) oxide 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
5 Zinc oxide 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
6 Manganese ferrite black spinel 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
7 Silicon Dioxide 1,000,000 + Y Y
8 Iron manganese trioxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
9 Aluminium Oxide 10,000,000+ Y Y
10 (2E)-10,12-dioxa-2,3,6,8,14,16-hexaaza-11-nickelatricyclo[11.4.0.04,9]heptadeca-1(13),2,4(9)-triene-5,7,15,17-tetrone; 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine 100 - 1,000 Y Y
11 Calcium carbonate 1,000,000 - 10,000,000 Y Y
12 Barium sulphate 10,000 - 100,000 Y Y
13 Carbon black 1,000,000 + Y Y
14 Cobalt aluminate blue spinel 1,000 - 10,000 Y  
15 Bismuth vanadium tetraoxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
16 29H,31H-phthalocyaninato(2-)-N29,N30,N31,N32 copper 10,000 - 100,000 Y Y
17 5,12-dihydro-2,9-dimethylquino-[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
18 5,12-dihydroquino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
19 4-[(4-aminophenyl)[4-(methylimino)cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]methyl]aniline Not Registered    
20 Polychloro copper phthalocyanine 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
21 2-[(4-methyl-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-oxo-N-phenylbutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
22 4-[[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]azo]-N-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
23 1-[(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-2-naphthol 100 - 1,000 Y Y
24 1-[(2,4-dinitrophenyl)azo]-2-naphthol 100 - 1,000 Y Y
25 4,4'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
26 4,4'-diamino[1,1'-bianthracene]-9,9',10,10'-tetraone 100 - 1,000 Y Y
27 bisbenzimidazo[2,1-b:2',1'-i]benzo[lmn][3,8]phenanthroline-8,17-dione 10 – 100 Y  
28 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
29 manganese, 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulfophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid complex 100- 1,000 Y Y
30 N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[[2-methoxy-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
31 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(2-methylphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
32 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
33 3,3'-[(2-chloro-5-methyl-p-phenylene)bis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethylene)azo]]bis[4-chloro-N-(3-chloro-o-tolyl)benzamide] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
34 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-N-phenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
35 2,20-dichloro-13,31-diethyl-4,22-dioxa-13,18,31,36-tetraazanonacyclo
[19.15.0.0³,¹⁹.0⁵,¹⁷.0⁶,¹⁴.0⁷,¹².0²³,³⁵.0²⁴,³².0²⁵,³⁰]
hexatriaconta-1(36),2,5,7(12),8,10,14,16,18,20,23(35),24(32),25,27,29,33-hexadecaene
1,000 - 10,000
 
Y Y
36 2-[(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
37 3-hydroxy-4-[(2-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(o-tolyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No uses reported
38 N-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[[5-[(diethylamino)sulphonyl]-2-methoxyphenyl]azo]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No Use reported
39 3-hydroxy-N-(o-tolyl)-4-[(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
40 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No Use reported
41 Calcium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
42 Barium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
43 2-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
44 Strontium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate (1:1) 100 - 1,000 Y Y
45 4,4'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-(p-tolyl)-3H-pyrazol-3-one] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
46 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-N-[2-(4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-1H-inden-2-yl)-8-quinolyl]phthalimide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
47 Dimethyl 2-[[1-[[(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-oxopropyl]azo]terephthalate 10 - 100 No Use reported No Use reported
48 5,5'-(1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-diylidene)dibarbituric acid 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
49 4-[[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]azo]-3-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 - 100 Y Y
50 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-2-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-oxobutyramide 10 - 100 No Use reported No Use reported
51 Methyl 4-[[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2-[[2-hydroxy-3-[[(2-methoxyphenyl)amino]carbonyl]-1-naphthyl]azo]benzoate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
52 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxo-2-[[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]azo]butyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
53 Tetramethyl 2,2'-[1,4-phenylenebis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethane-1,2-diyl)azo]]bisterephthalate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
54 5-[(2,3-dihydro-6-methyl-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)azo]barbituric acid 100 - 1,000 Y Y
55 N-[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]-4-[[1-[[(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-oxopropyl]azo]benzamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
56 2,2'-[ethylenebis(oxyphenyl-2,1-eneazo)]bis[N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
57 3,3'-[(2-chloro-5-methyl-p-phenylene)bis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethylene)azo]]bis[4-chloro-N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]benzamide] 10 - 100 Y Y
58 3,6-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1H,2H,4H,5H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione 1,000 - 10,000. Y Y
59

3,6-bis(4-phenylphenyl)-1H,2H,4H,5H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione

10-100 Y Y
60  

N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[(E)-2-[2-methoxy-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl]diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide; N-(5-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[(E)-2-[2-methoxy-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl]diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide

100 - 1,000 No Use reported No Use reported
61 Ethanaminium, N-[4-[[4-(diethylamino)phenyl][4-(ethylamino)-1-naphthalenyl]methylene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene]-Nethyl-, molybdatetungstatephosphate Not Registered    
62 2,9-dichloro-5,12-dihydroquino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione Not Registered    
63 barium bis[2-chloro-5-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]toluene-4-sulphonate] Not Registered    
64 Xanthylium, 9-[2-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-3,6-bis(ethylamino)-2,7-dimethyl-, molybdatesilicate Not Registered    
65 Benzenamine, N,N-dimethyl-, oxidized, molybdatetungstatephosphates Not Registered    
66 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 0 - 10 No Use reported No Use reported
67 2-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
68 benzenamine, 4-[(4-aminophenyl)(4-imino-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)methyl]-, N-Me derivatives,molybdatephosphates Not Registered    
69 Butanamide, 2,2'-((3,3'-dichloro(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-
diyl)bis(2,1-diazenediyl))bis(N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1Hbenzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxo-
Not Registered    
70 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-hydroxy-4-[[2-methoxy-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
71 Bis[[4-[[4-(diethylamino)phenyl][4-(ethylamino)-1-naphthyl]methylene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]diethylammonium] dicopper(1+) hexa(cyano-C)ferrate(4-) 10 - 100    
72 N,N'-(2-chloro-1,4-phenylene)bis[4-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
73 Copper(II)-hydroxycarbonate 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
74 Chromium(III) oxide 10,000 -100,000 Y Y
75 Disodium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate 10-100 Y Y
76 Calcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate      
77 Prussian blue 100-1,000 Y Y
78 Triiron tetraoxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
79 Silver (Ag) 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y  
80 Gold 100 - 1,000 Y Y
81 Copper 1,000,000 - 10,000,000 Y Y

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