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Пигментите

Пигментите

Пигментите са неразтворими органични или неорганични химикали, които се използват за оцветяване на различни продукти на пазара на ЕС. Съставени са от редица вещества, някои от които са наноматериали. Размерът на частиците пигмент може да играе важна роля за свойствата на тези химикали.

Наноматериалите, като например частиците колоидно злато за оцветяване на стъкло, се използват в продължение на стотици години и могат да бъдат открити във витражните стъкла на много старинни сгради в Европа. Пигменти с наноматериали могат да се намерят в различни продукти, бои, покрития, печатарски мастила и козметични продукти.

Определянето на това кои пигменти са наноматериали, представлява важно научно и регулаторно предизвикателство, както е в случая с наноматериалите като цяло. Пускането на пигменти, включително на пигменти с наноматериали, на пазара на ЕС се регулира от различни регламенти, включително регламента REACH и, когато е уместно, наред с други и регламентите на ЕС относно козметичните продукти и храните.

 

Списък на нанопигментите на пазара на ЕС

Като част от проучване, възложено от Обсерваторията за наноматериали на ЕС (ЕUON), за разследване на безопасното използване на пигменти с наноразмери в потребителските продукти, както и на тяхната безопасност, когато се използват от специалисти и работници, беше установен списък от пигменти с наноразмери, за които в момента се знае, че са на пазара на ЕС.

Списъкът се състои от 81 вещества от базата данни за химикали на Европейската агенция по химикали (ECHA), публикации на белгийските и френските национални инвентарни списъци и от настоящия списък на ЕС на наноматериалите, използвани в козметичните продукти. Използвани са също данни от датския регистър на продуктите. За повече информация от базата данни за химикали на ECHA кликнете върху наименованията на веществата в списъка.

 

No Name REACH Data
REACH tonnage (tpa) Professional use Consumer use
1 Titanium dioxide 1,000,000 + Y Y
2 Rutile (TiO2) 10,000 - 100,000 Y  
3 Iron hydroxide oxide yellow 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
4 Diiron trioxide / Iron (III) oxide 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
5 Zinc oxide 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y Y
6 Manganese ferrite black spinel 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
7 Silicon Dioxide 1,000,000 + Y Y
8 Iron manganese trioxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
9 Aluminium Oxide 10,000,000+ Y Y
10 (2E)-10,12-dioxa-2,3,6,8,14,16-hexaaza-11-nickelatricyclo[11.4.0.04,9]heptadeca-1(13),2,4(9)-triene-5,7,15,17-tetrone; 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine 100 - 1,000 Y Y
11 Calcium carbonate 1,000,000 - 10,000,000 Y Y
12 Barium sulphate 10,000 - 100,000 Y Y
13 Carbon black 1,000,000 + Y Y
14 Cobalt aluminate blue spinel 1,000 - 10,000 Y  
15 Bismuth vanadium tetraoxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
16 29H,31H-phthalocyaninato(2-)-N29,N30,N31,N32 copper 10,000 - 100,000 Y Y
17 5,12-dihydro-2,9-dimethylquino-[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
18 5,12-dihydroquino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
19 4-[(4-aminophenyl)[4-(methylimino)cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]methyl]aniline Not Registered    
20 Polychloro copper phthalocyanine 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
21 2-[(4-methyl-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-oxo-N-phenylbutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
22 4-[[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]azo]-N-(2-ethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
23 1-[(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-2-naphthol 100 - 1,000 Y Y
24 1-[(2,4-dinitrophenyl)azo]-2-naphthol 100 - 1,000 Y Y
25 4,4'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
26 4,4'-diamino[1,1'-bianthracene]-9,9',10,10'-tetraone 100 - 1,000 Y Y
27 bisbenzimidazo[2,1-b:2',1'-i]benzo[lmn][3,8]phenanthroline-8,17-dione 10 – 100 Y  
28 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
29 manganese, 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulfophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid complex 100- 1,000 Y Y
30 N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[[2-methoxy-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
31 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(2-methylphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
32 2,2'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide] 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
33 3,3'-[(2-chloro-5-methyl-p-phenylene)bis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethylene)azo]]bis[4-chloro-N-(3-chloro-o-tolyl)benzamide] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
34 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-N-phenylnaphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
35 2,20-dichloro-13,31-diethyl-4,22-dioxa-13,18,31,36-tetraazanonacyclo
[19.15.0.0³,¹⁹.0⁵,¹⁷.0⁶,¹⁴.0⁷,¹².0²³,³⁵.0²⁴,³².0²⁵,³⁰]
hexatriaconta-1(36),2,5,7(12),8,10,14,16,18,20,23(35),24(32),25,27,29,33-hexadecaene
1,000 - 10,000
 
Y Y
36 2-[(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
37 3-hydroxy-4-[(2-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(o-tolyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No uses reported
38 N-(5-chloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[[5-[(diethylamino)sulphonyl]-2-methoxyphenyl]azo]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No Use reported
39 3-hydroxy-N-(o-tolyl)-4-[(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
40 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 – 100 No Use reported No Use reported
41 Calcium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
42 Barium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
43 2-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
44 Strontium 4-[(5-chloro-4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate (1:1) 100 - 1,000 Y Y
45 4,4'-[(3,3'-dichloro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(azo)]bis[2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-(p-tolyl)-3H-pyrazol-3-one] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
46 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-N-[2-(4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-2,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-1H-inden-2-yl)-8-quinolyl]phthalimide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
47 Dimethyl 2-[[1-[[(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-oxopropyl]azo]terephthalate 10 - 100 No Use reported No Use reported
48 5,5'-(1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-diylidene)dibarbituric acid 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
49 4-[[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]azo]-3-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 10 - 100 Y Y
50 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-2-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-oxobutyramide 10 - 100 No Use reported No Use reported
51 Methyl 4-[[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2-[[2-hydroxy-3-[[(2-methoxyphenyl)amino]carbonyl]-1-naphthyl]azo]benzoate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
52 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxo-2-[[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]azo]butyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
53 Tetramethyl 2,2'-[1,4-phenylenebis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethane-1,2-diyl)azo]]bisterephthalate 100 - 1,000 Y Y
54 5-[(2,3-dihydro-6-methyl-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)azo]barbituric acid 100 - 1,000 Y Y
55 N-[4-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]-4-[[1-[[(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl]-2-oxopropyl]azo]benzamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
56 2,2'-[ethylenebis(oxyphenyl-2,1-eneazo)]bis[N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
57 3,3'-[(2-chloro-5-methyl-p-phenylene)bis[imino(1-acetyl-2-oxoethylene)azo]]bis[4-chloro-N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]benzamide] 10 - 100 Y Y
58 3,6-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1H,2H,4H,5H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione 1,000 - 10,000. Y Y
59

3,6-bis(4-phenylphenyl)-1H,2H,4H,5H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione

10-100 Y Y
60  

N-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[(E)-2-[2-methoxy-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl]diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide; N-(5-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-3-hydroxy-4-[(E)-2-[2-methoxy-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl]diazen-1-yl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide

100 - 1,000 No Use reported No Use reported
61 Ethanaminium, N-[4-[[4-(diethylamino)phenyl][4-(ethylamino)-1-naphthalenyl]methylene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene]-Nethyl-, molybdatetungstatephosphate Not Registered    
62 2,9-dichloro-5,12-dihydroquino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione Not Registered    
63 barium bis[2-chloro-5-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]toluene-4-sulphonate] Not Registered    
64 Xanthylium, 9-[2-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-3,6-bis(ethylamino)-2,7-dimethyl-, molybdatesilicate Not Registered    
65 Benzenamine, N,N-dimethyl-, oxidized, molybdatetungstatephosphates Not Registered    
66 4-[(2,5-dichlorophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide 0 - 10 No Use reported No Use reported
67 2-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-N-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-oxobutyramide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
68 benzenamine, 4-[(4-aminophenyl)(4-imino-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)methyl]-, N-Me derivatives,molybdatephosphates Not Registered    
69 Butanamide, 2,2'-((3,3'-dichloro(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-
diyl)bis(2,1-diazenediyl))bis(N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1Hbenzimidazol-5-yl)-3-oxo-
Not Registered    
70 N-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-3-hydroxy-4-[[2-methoxy-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-2-carboxamide 100 - 1,000 Y Y
71 Bis[[4-[[4-(diethylamino)phenyl][4-(ethylamino)-1-naphthyl]methylene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]diethylammonium] dicopper(1+) hexa(cyano-C)ferrate(4-) 10 - 100    
72 N,N'-(2-chloro-1,4-phenylene)bis[4-[(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)azo]-3-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide] 100 - 1,000 Y Y
73 Copper(II)-hydroxycarbonate 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
74 Chromium(III) oxide 10,000 -100,000 Y Y
75 Disodium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate 10-100 Y Y
76 Calcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate      
77 Prussian blue 100-1,000 Y Y
78 Triiron tetraoxide 1,000 - 10,000 Y Y
79 Silver (Ag) 100,000 - 1,000,000 Y  
80 Gold 100 - 1,000 Y Y
81 Copper 1,000,000 - 10,000,000 Y Y

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